Station 46035 (LLNR 1198) - CENTRAL BERING SEA - 310 NM North of Adak, AK Image indicating link to RSS feed of recent meteorological observations for station 46035


Conditions at 46035 as of
(4:00 pm HAST on 07/15/2024)
0200 GMT on 07/16/2024:
     

Click on the graph icon in the table below to see a time series plot of the last five days of that observation.

5-day plot - Wind Direction Wind Direction (WDIR):WNW ( 290 deg true )
5-day plot - Wind Speed Wind Speed (WSPD): 7.8 kts
5-day plot - Wind Gust Wind Gust (GST): 9.7 kts
5-day plot - Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric Pressure (PRES):29.94 in
5-day plot - Pressure Tendency Pressure Tendency (PTDY):+0.01 in ( Rising )
5-day plot - Air Temperature Air Temperature (ATMP): 44.1 °F
5-day plot - Water Temperature Water Temperature (WTMP): 45.9 °F
5-day plot - Dew Point Dew Point (DEWP): 43.3 °F
5-day plot - Wind Chill Wind Chill (CHILL): 39.0 °F
5-day plot - Wind Speed at 10 Meters Wind Speed at 10 meters (WSPD10M): 7.8 kts
5-day plot - Wind Speed at 20 Meters Wind Speed at 20 meters (WSPD20M): 9.7 kts
5-day plot -  Wind Speed, Wind Gust and Atmospheric Pressure Combined plot of Wind Speed, Gust, and Air Pressure
Supplemental Measurements
Lowest 1-minute Pressure
Time (HAST)Pressure
3:59 pm29.94 in
Highest 1-minute Wind Speed
Time (HAST)5-day plot - 1-Minute Wind Speed WSPD 5-day plot - 1-Minute Wind Direction WDIR
4:00 pm 9.7 kts W ( 280 deg true )
Previous observations
TIME
(HAST)
5-day plot - Wind Direction
WDIR
 
5-day plot - Wind Speed
WSPD
kts
5-day plot - Wind Gust
GST
kts
5-day plot - Wave Height
WVHT
ft
5-day plot - Dominant Wave Period
DPD
sec
5-day plot - Average Wave Period
APD
sec
5-day plot - Mean Wave Direction
MWD
 
5-day plot - Atmospheric Pressure
PRES
in
5-day plot - Pressure Tendency
PTDY
in
5-day plot - Air Temperature
ATMP
°F
5-day plot - Water Temperature
WTMP
°F
5-day plot - Dew Point
DEWP
°F
5-day plot - Salinity
SAL
psu
5-day plot - Visibility
VIS
nmi
5-day plot - Tide (above MLLW)
TIDE
ft
2024-07-15 03:50 pmWNW 7.8 11.7 4.6 75.4WNW29.94- 44.1 45.9 43.3---
2024-07-15 03:40 pmWNW 7.8 9.7----29.94- 44.1 45.9 43.3---
2024-07-15 03:30 pm W 9.7 11.7----29.94- 43.9 45.9 43.2---
2024-07-15 03:20 pmWNW 9.7 13.6 4.3 75.5WNW29.94- 43.9 45.9 43.3---
2024-07-15 03:10 pmWNW 9.7 11.7 4.3-5.5WNW29.94- 43.9 45.9 43.3---
2024-07-15 03:00 pmWNW 9.7 11.7----29.94+0.02 43.7 45.9 43.0---
2024-07-15 02:50 pm W 9.7 11.7 4.3 85.4WNW29.94- 43.7 45.9 43.2---
2024-07-15 02:40 pm W 9.7 11.7 4.3-5.4WNW29.94- 43.7 45.9 43.2---
2024-07-15 02:30 pmWNW 7.8 11.7----29.94- 43.9 45.9 43.3---
2024-07-15 02:20 pmWNW 7.8 11.7 3.9 85.3 W29.93- 43.9 45.9 43.3---
2024-07-15 02:10 pmWNW 7.8 11.7 3.9-5.3 W29.93- 44.1 45.9 43.7---
2024-07-15 02:00 pmWNW 7.8 9.7----29.93+0.02 43.7 45.9 43.3---
2024-07-15 01:50 pmWNW 9.7 11.7 3.9 85.2WNW29.93- 43.7 45.9 43.5---
2024-07-15 01:40 pmWNW 9.7 11.7----29.93- 43.7 45.9 43.5---
2024-07-15 01:10 pm W 9.7 13.6 4.3-5.3WNW29.93- 43.7 45.7 43.7---
2024-07-15 01:00 pm W 9.7 11.7----29.93+0.03 43.7 45.7 43.7---
2024-07-15 12:50 pm W 9.7 13.6 4.3 85.2WNW29.93- 43.5 45.7 43.5---
2024-07-15 12:40 pmWNW 9.7 13.6----29.93- 43.2 45.7 43.2---
2024-07-15 12:30 pm W 9.7 13.6----29.92- 43.2 45.7 43.2---
2024-07-15 12:20 pm W 11.7 13.6 3.9 85.2 W29.92- 43.3 45.7----
2024-07-15 12:10 pm W 11.7 13.6----29.92- 43.3 45.7----
2024-07-15 12:00 pm W 11.7 13.6----29.92+0.02 43.2 45.7----
2024-07-15 11:50 am W 11.7 13.6 4.6 75.3WNW29.92- 43.2 45.7----
2024-07-15 11:40 am W 11.7 15.5----29.92- 43.0 45.7----
2024-07-15 11:30 am W 11.7 13.6----29.92- 42.8 45.7----
2024-07-15 11:20 amWNW 11.7 15.5 4.3 85.3WNW29.91- 42.8 45.7----
2024-07-15 11:10 amWNW 11.7 15.5 4.3-5.3WNW29.91- 42.8 45.7----
2024-07-15 11:00 amWNW 11.7 13.6----29.91+0.02 42.4 45.7----
2024-07-15 10:50 am W 11.7 13.6 4.3 85.1 W29.91- 42.4 45.7----
2024-07-15 10:40 am W 11.7 13.6----29.91- 42.3 45.7----
2024-07-15 10:30 am W 11.7 13.6----29.90- 42.6 45.7----
2024-07-15 10:20 am W 9.7 13.6 4.3 85.3WSW29.90- 42.6 45.7----
2024-07-15 10:10 am W 9.7 13.6 4.3-5.3WSW29.90- 42.4 45.7----
2024-07-15 10:00 amWNW 11.7 15.5----29.90+0.02 42.3 45.7----
2024-07-15 09:50 amWNW 11.7 15.5 4.3 85.3 W29.90- 42.4 45.7----
2024-07-15 09:40 am W 11.7 13.6----29.90- 42.4 45.7----
2024-07-15 09:30 am W 11.7 13.6----29.90- 42.3 45.7----
2024-07-15 09:20 amWNW 11.7 13.6 4.3 65.2 NW29.90- 42.3 45.7----
2024-07-15 09:10 amWNW 11.7 13.6 4.3-5.2 NW29.90- 42.3 45.7----
2024-07-15 09:00 amWNW 11.7 13.6----29.90+0.03 42.3 45.7----
2024-07-15 08:50 am W 11.7 13.6 4.3 65.1WNW29.90- 42.4 45.7----
2024-07-15 08:40 am W 9.7 13.6----29.90- 42.4 45.7----
2024-07-15 08:30 am W 11.7 13.6----29.90- 42.4 45.7----
2024-07-15 08:20 amWNW 11.7 15.5 4.3 85.1 W29.90- 42.6 45.7----
2024-07-15 08:10 amWNW 11.7 13.6 4.3-5.1 W29.90- 42.6 45.7----
2024-07-15 08:00 am W 11.7 15.5----29.89+0.03 42.4 45.7----
2024-07-15 07:50 am W 11.7 15.5 4.3 65.2WNW29.89- 42.6 45.7----
2024-07-15 07:40 am W 11.7 15.5 4.3-5.2WNW29.89- 42.6 45.7----
2024-07-15 07:30 amWNW 11.7 13.6----29.88- 42.6 45.7----
2024-07-15 07:20 amWNW 11.7 15.5 4.6 85.2 W29.88- 42.4 45.7----
2024-07-15 07:10 amWNW 11.7 15.5 4.6-5.2 W29.88- 42.4 45.7----
2024-07-15 07:00 amWNW 11.7 13.6----29.88+0.02 42.8 45.7----
2024-07-15 06:50 am W 11.7 13.6 4.3 65.1WNW29.88- 42.4 45.7----
2024-07-15 06:40 am W 11.7 15.5 4.3-5.1WNW29.88- 42.6 45.7----
2024-07-15 06:30 amWNW 11.7 13.6----29.87- 42.6 45.7----
2024-07-15 06:20 amWNW 11.7 15.5 4.3 65.1WNW29.87- 43.0 45.7----
2024-07-15 06:10 am W 11.7 13.6 4.3-5.1WNW29.87- 43.0 45.7----
2024-07-15 06:00 amWNW 13.6 15.5----29.87+0.01 42.8 45.7----
2024-07-15 05:50 amWNW 13.6 15.5 4.6 85.1 SW29.87- 43.0 45.7----
2024-07-15 05:40 amWNW 11.7 15.5 4.6-5.1 SW29.87- 43.2 45.7----
2024-07-15 05:30 amWNW 11.7 15.5----29.87- 43.2 45.7----
2024-07-15 05:20 am W 11.7 15.5 4.3 65.0WNW29.87- 43.0 45.7----
2024-07-15 05:10 amWNW 13.6 15.5 4.3-5.0WNW29.86- 43.2 45.7----
2024-07-15 05:00 amWNW 13.6 17.5----29.87+0.01 43.2 45.7----
2024-07-15 04:50 am W 13.6 15.5 4.3 65.1 NW29.86- 43.3 45.7----
2024-07-15 04:40 am W 13.6 15.5 4.3-5.1 NW29.86- 43.5 45.7----
2024-07-15 04:30 am W 13.6 17.5----29.86- 43.3 45.7----
2024-07-15 04:20 amWNW 11.7 15.5 4.3 75.3WNW29.86- 43.5 45.7----
2024-07-15 04:10 amWNW 13.6 15.5 4.3-5.3WNW29.86- 43.3 45.7----
2024-07-15 04:00 am W 13.6 15.5----29.86+0.02 43.5 45.7----
2024-07-15 03:50 amWNW 11.7 13.6 4.3 65.1 NW29.86- 43.7 45.7----
2024-07-15 03:40 am W 13.6 17.5----29.86- 43.5 45.7----
2024-07-15 03:30 am W 11.7 15.5----29.86- 43.5 45.7----
2024-07-15 03:20 amWNW 11.7 15.5 4.3 85.2WSW29.86- 43.7 45.7----
2024-07-15 03:10 amWNW 11.7 13.6 4.3-5.2WSW29.85- 43.7 45.7----
2024-07-15 03:00 amWNW 11.7 13.6----29.85+0.02 43.7 45.7----
2024-07-15 02:50 am W 11.7 15.5 4.3 75.2WNW29.85- 43.9 45.7----
2024-07-15 02:40 amWNW 11.7 13.6 4.3-5.2WNW29.85- 43.9 45.7----
2024-07-15 02:30 am W 11.7 13.6----29.85- 44.1 45.7----
2024-07-15 02:20 am W 11.7 13.6 4.3 75.2 NW29.85- 44.1 45.7----
2024-07-15 02:10 amWNW 9.7 13.6 4.3-5.2 NW29.85- 44.2 45.7----
2024-07-15 02:00 am W 11.7 15.5----29.85+0.02 44.1 45.7----
2024-07-15 01:50 am W 9.7 13.6 4.3 75.1WNW29.85- 44.2 45.7----
2024-07-15 01:40 amWNW 9.7 13.6----29.84- 44.2 45.7----
2024-07-15 01:30 am W 9.7 13.6----29.84- 44.4 45.7----
2024-07-15 01:20 am W 9.7 11.7 4.3 65.2 NW29.84- 44.4 45.7----
2024-07-15 01:10 amWNW 9.7 11.7 4.3-5.2 NW29.84- 44.4 45.7----
2024-07-15 01:00 amWNW 9.7 11.7----29.84+0.02 44.4 45.7----
2024-07-15 12:50 amWNW 9.7 11.7 3.9 65.1 NW29.84- 44.4 45.7----
2024-07-15 12:40 amWNW 11.7 13.6----29.84- 44.4 45.7----
2024-07-15 12:30 amWNW 11.7 13.6----29.84- 44.4 45.7----
2024-07-15 12:20 amWNW 11.7 13.6 4.6 75.3 NW29.84- 44.4 45.7----
2024-07-15 12:10 amWNW 11.7 15.5 4.6-5.3 NW29.84- 44.4 45.7----
2024-07-15 12:00 amWNW 11.7 15.5----29.84+0.02 44.4 45.7----
2024-07-14 11:50 pmWNW 11.7 13.6 4.3 75.4 NW29.84- 44.6 45.7----
2024-07-14 11:40 pmWNW 11.7 13.6----29.83- 44.6 45.7----
2024-07-14 11:30 pmWNW 11.7 13.6----29.83- 44.6 45.7----
2024-07-14 11:20 pmWNW 11.7 13.6 4.3 65.2WNW29.83- 44.8 45.7----
2024-07-14 11:10 pmWNW 11.7 13.6 4.3-5.2WNW29.83- 44.8 45.7----
2024-07-14 11:00 pmWNW 11.7 15.5----29.83+0.03 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 10:50 pmWNW 9.7 13.6 4.3 75.2 NW29.83- 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 10:40 pmWNW 11.7 13.6----29.83- 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 10:30 pmWNW 11.7 13.6----29.83- 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 10:20 pmWNW 11.7 13.6 4.6 65.4 NW29.83- 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 10:10 pmWNW 11.7 13.6 4.6-5.4 NW29.82- 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 10:00 pmWNW 11.7 13.6----29.82+0.01 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 09:50 pmWNW 11.7 13.6 4.6 75.4 NW29.82- 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 09:40 pmWNW 11.7 13.6 4.6-5.4 NW29.82- 45.1 45.7----
2024-07-14 09:30 pmWNW 11.7 15.5----29.81- 45.1 45.7----
2024-07-14 09:20 pmWNW 11.7 13.6 4.9 75.4 NW29.81- 45.1 45.7----
2024-07-14 09:10 pmWNW 11.7 13.6 4.9-5.4 NW29.81- 45.1 45.7----
2024-07-14 09:00 pmWNW 11.7 13.6----29.81+0.01 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 08:50 pm W 11.7 15.5 4.6 65.2 NW29.81- 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 08:40 pm W 11.7 15.5 4.6-5.2 NW29.81- 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 08:30 pmWNW 13.6 15.5----29.81- 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 08:20 pmWNW 11.7 15.5 4.6 75.6 NW29.81- 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 08:10 pmWNW 13.6 15.5 4.6-5.6 NW29.81- 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 08:00 pm W 13.6 15.5----29.80+0.00 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 07:50 pm W 11.7 13.6 4.6 75.4WNW29.80- 45.1 45.7----
2024-07-14 07:40 pm W 9.7 11.7----29.80- 45.1 45.7----
2024-07-14 07:30 pm W 9.7 11.7----29.81- 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 07:20 pm W 11.7 13.6 4.9 75.7WNW29.81- 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 07:10 pm W 9.7 13.6----29.81- 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 07:00 pm W 11.7 13.6----29.81+0.00 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 06:50 pm W 9.7 11.7 4.3 65.5 NW29.81- 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 06:40 pm W 11.7 11.7----29.81- 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 06:30 pm W 9.7 11.7----29.81- 45.0 45.7----
2024-07-14 06:20 pm W 9.7 11.7 4.6 65.5NNW29.80- 44.8 45.7----
2024-07-14 06:10 pm W 9.7 11.7 4.6-5.5NNW29.80- 44.8 45.7----
2024-07-14 06:00 pm W 9.7 11.7----29.80+0.00 44.8 45.7----
2024-07-14 05:50 pm W 11.7 13.6 4.6 75.2WNW29.80- 44.8 45.7----
2024-07-14 05:40 pm W 11.7 13.6----29.80- 44.6 45.7----
2024-07-14 05:30 pm W 11.7 13.6----29.80- 44.4 45.7----
2024-07-14 05:20 pm W 13.6 15.5 4.6 65.3WNW29.80- 44.4 45.7----
2024-07-14 05:10 pm W 13.6 15.5 4.6-5.3WNW29.80- 44.4 45.7----
2024-07-14 05:00 pm W 13.6 15.5----29.80+0.00 44.4 45.7----
2024-07-14 04:50 pm W 13.6 15.5 4.9 65.3NNW29.80- 44.4 45.7----
2024-07-14 04:40 pm W 11.7 15.5----29.80- 44.4 45.7----
2024-07-14 04:30 pm W 11.7 15.5----29.81- 44.4 45.7----
2024-07-14 04:20 pm W 11.7 13.6 4.9 65.4 NW29.81- 44.4 45.7----
2024-07-14 04:10 pm W 11.7 13.6 4.9-5.4 NW29.81- 44.4 45.7----
2024-07-14 04:00 pm W 11.7 13.6----29.80+0.00 44.4 45.7----
2024-07-14 03:50 pm W 11.7 13.6 4.6 65.3WNW29.80- 44.8 45.7----

Detailed Wave Summary
for 46035 as of
(3:40 pm HAST on 07/15/2024)
0140 GMT on 07/16/2024:

These wave data are displayed in rounded times.

     

Click on the graph icon in the table below to see a time series plot of the last five days of that observation.

5-day plot - Significant Wave Height Significant Wave Height (WVHT): 4.6 ft
5-day plot - Swell Height Swell Height (SwH): 4.3 ft
5-day plot - Swell Period Swell Period (SwP): 7.1 sec
5-day plot - Swell Direction Swell Direction (SwD):WNW
5-day plot - Wind Wave Height Wind Wave Height (WWH): 1.6 ft
5-day plot - Wind Wave Period Wind Wave Period (WWP): 3.8 sec
5-day plot - Wind Wave Direction Wind Wave Direction (WWD):WNW
5-day plot - Wave Steepness Wave Steepness (STEEPNESS): STEEP
5-day plot - Average Wave Period Average Wave Period (APD): 5.4 sec
Previous observations
TIME
(HAST)
5-day plot - Wave Height
WVHT
ft
5-day plot - Swell Height
SwH
ft
5-day plot - Swell Period
SwP
sec
5-day plot - Swell Direction
SwD
 
5-day plot - Wind Wave Height
WWH
ft
5-day plot - Wind Wave Period
WWP
sec
5-day plot - Wind Wave Direction
WWD
 
5-day plot - Wave Steepness
STEEPNESS
 
5-day plot - Average Wave Period
APD
sec
2024-07-15 03:10 pm 4.3 3.9 7.1WNW 1.6 4.3 WNW STEEP 5.5
2024-07-15 02:40 pm 4.3 3.9 7.7WNW 2.0 4.0 WNW AVERAGE 5.4
2024-07-15 02:10 pm 3.9 3.9 7.7 W 1.3 4.0 WNW AVERAGE 5.3
2024-07-15 01:40 pm 3.9 3.3 7.7WNW 2.0 4.5 NW AVERAGE 5.2
2024-07-15 01:10 pm 4.3 3.6 7.1WNW 2.0 4.8 WNW AVERAGE 5.3
2024-07-15 12:40 pm 4.3 3.6 7.7WNW 2.3 4.5 WNW AVERAGE 5.2
2024-07-15 12:10 pm 3.9 3.0 7.7 W 2.6 5.0 WNW AVERAGE 5.2
2024-07-15 11:40 am 4.6 3.6 7.1WNW 2.6 5.6 WNW STEEP 5.3
2024-07-15 11:10 am 4.3 3.3 7.7WNW 3.0 4.8 WNW AVERAGE 5.3
2024-07-15 10:40 am 4.3 3.3 7.7 W 3.0 5.6 WNW AVERAGE 5.1
2024-07-15 10:10 am 4.3 3.6 8.3WSW 2.3 4.2 WNW AVERAGE 5.3
2024-07-15 09:40 am 4.3 3.6 7.7 W 2.6 5.3 WNW AVERAGE 5.3
2024-07-15 09:10 am 4.3 3.0 6.2 NW 2.6 5.0 WNW STEEP 5.2
2024-07-15 08:40 am 4.3 3.6 5.6WNW 2.3 4.3 WNWVERY_STEEP 5.1
2024-07-15 08:10 am 4.3 3.3 7.7 W 2.6 4.5 W AVERAGE 5.1
2024-07-15 07:40 am 4.3 3.0 7.1WNW 3.0 5.9 WNW STEEP 5.2
2024-07-15 07:10 am 4.6 3.3 7.7 W 3.0 5.6 NW AVERAGE 5.2
2024-07-15 06:40 am 4.3 3.0 6.2WNW 3.0 5.3 NW STEEP 5.1
2024-07-15 06:10 am 4.3 3.3 6.2WNW 2.6 5.0 WNW STEEP 5.1
2024-07-15 05:40 am 4.6 3.3 8.3 SW 3.3 5.3 WNW AVERAGE 5.1
2024-07-15 05:10 am 4.3 2.6 7.7WSW 3.3 5.6 WNWVERY_STEEP 5.0
2024-07-15 04:40 am 4.3 2.6 6.7WNW 3.6 5.9 NW STEEP 5.1
2024-07-15 04:10 am 4.3 3.0 6.7WNW 3.3 5.3 WNW STEEP 5.3
2024-07-15 03:40 am 4.3 2.6 7.7 W 3.3 6.2 NW STEEP 5.1
2024-07-15 03:10 am 4.3 3.3 7.7WSW 2.6 5.0 WNW AVERAGE 5.2
2024-07-15 02:40 am 4.3 3.3 6.7WNW 2.6 4.8 W STEEP 5.2
2024-07-15 02:10 am 4.3 3.6 6.7 NW 2.3 4.8 WNW STEEP 5.2
2024-07-15 01:40 am 4.3 3.6 7.1WNW 2.0 4.2 W AVERAGE 5.1
2024-07-15 01:10 am 4.3 3.6 6.2 NW 2.0 4.3 W STEEP 5.2
2024-07-15 12:40 am 3.9 3.3 6.2 NW 2.6 4.3 WNW STEEP 5.1
2024-07-15 12:10 am 4.6 3.3 6.7 NW 3.3 5.9 WNW STEEP 5.3
2024-07-14 11:40 pm 4.3 3.6 7.1 NW 2.6 5.6 NW STEEP 5.4
2024-07-14 11:10 pm 4.3 3.6 6.2WNW 2.3 5.0 WNW STEEP 5.2
2024-07-14 10:40 pm 4.3 3.3 6.7 NW 2.6 5.3 NW STEEP 5.2
2024-07-14 10:10 pm 4.6 3.6 6.2 NW 3.0 5.6 WNW STEEP 5.4
2024-07-14 09:40 pm 4.6 3.6 6.7 NW 2.6 4.2 W STEEP 5.4
2024-07-14 09:10 pm 4.9 3.9 7.1 NW 2.6 5.3 NW STEEP 5.4
2024-07-14 08:40 pm 4.6 3.3 6.2 NW 3.3 5.3 WNW STEEP 5.2
2024-07-14 08:10 pm 4.6 3.3 7.1 NW 3.3 5.9 NW STEEP 5.6
2024-07-14 07:40 pm 4.6 3.9 6.7WNW 2.3 4.0 W STEEP 5.4
2024-07-14 07:10 pm 4.9 4.6 6.7WNW 2.3 4.0 W STEEP 5.7
2024-07-14 06:40 pm 4.3 3.6 6.2 NW 2.3 5.3 NW STEEP 5.5
2024-07-14 06:10 pm 4.6 4.3 6.2NNW 2.3 3.8 WNW STEEP 5.5
2024-07-14 05:40 pm 4.6 3.9 6.7WNW 2.6 5.3 WNW STEEP 5.2
2024-07-14 05:10 pm 4.6 3.3 9.1WSW 3.6 6.2 WNW STEEP 5.3
2024-07-14 04:40 pm 4.9 3.6 6.2NNW 3.3 4.8 W STEEP 5.3
2024-07-14 04:10 pm 4.9 3.6 6.2 NW 3.3 3.7 WNW STEEP 5.4

Plot of wave energy versus frequency (and period)