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Reports from the National Data Buoy Center's Stations During the Passage of Hurricane Ike

01 - 14 September 2008
and During Ike's Extratropical Transition 14-15 September 2008

Figure 1: Montage of Hurricane Ike. Image courtesy of CIMMS

Figure 1: Montage of Hurricane Ike. Image courtesy of CIMMS ( http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/tropic2)

This report provides a summary of some of the wind speed parameters, the sea-level pressure, and wave parameter reports from the National Data Buoy Center's (NDBC) stations in the vicinity of Hurricane Ike's track. During Hurricane Ike, NDBC's stations provided 1122 real-time hourly reports within 300 nautical miles of Ike's track . Ike's position data are based on the advisory positions and may change when the National Hurricane Center does its final report on Ike (when completed the report will appear in the 2008 Atlantic Season Archives at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/2008atlan.shtml).


Descriptions of measurements and other terms of reference are provided in Appendix A at the end of the report. Hurricane Ike caused two station casualties � the failure of station SRST2 and the movement of station 42035 approximately 25 miles southwest of its original mooring location. One station, 42003, was a casualty of Hurricane Gustav and provided no measurements for Ike. NDBC was testing two buoys in the western Gulf of Mexico for the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Array (TAO, see http://tao.ndbc.noaa.gov/proj_overview/proj_overview_ndbc.shtml) and released the data in real-time as stations 42070 and 42071. Contact webmaster.ndbc@noaa.gov for more information on these two stations.

Figure 2: NDBC Stations within 300NM of Hurricane Ike's Track and the Stations in the Great Lakes region reporting Gale or Storm Force winds as Ike underwent extratropical transition.

Figure 2: NDBC Stations within 300NM of Hurricane Ike's Track and the Stations in the Great Lakes region reporting Gale or Storm Force winds as Ike underwent extratropical transition.

Figure 3: Expanded View of Figure 2 in the western Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico

Figure 3: Expanded View of Figure 2 in the western Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico


Table 1: Wind Events at Selected NDBC Stations
Station Closest Point of Approach Anemometer Height (m) Highest Sustained Wind Speed (m/s) Highest Gusts (m/s)
Bearing (degrees True) Distance (nm) Date-Time (UTC) Report Date-Time (UTC) Averaging Period (minutes) Report Date-Time (UTC) Averaging Period (seconds)
41041 012 270 9/02/2008 15:00 5 8.4 9/02/2008 14:10 10 11 9/02/2008 14:00 5
41043 341 102 9/06/2008 02:00 5 16.1 9/06/2008 07:05 1 19 9/06/2008 06:37 5
41046 188 164 9/07/2008 06:00 5 18.7 9/07/2008 13:00 1 22 9/07/2008 03:40 5
42056 028 194 9/09/2008 18:00 10 19.2 9/09/2008 19:30 1 23 9/02/2008 19:11 5
PLSF1 216 117 9/10/2008 00:00 17.7 26.3 9/09/2008 21:10 10 32.9 9/09/2008 21:38 5
42001 020 15 9/11/2008 22:00 10 30.5 9/12/2008 02:40 10 39 9/12/2008 02:41 5
42040 204 200 9/11/2008 23:00 5 17.5 9/11/2008 11:50 10 23 9/12/2008 02:50 5
42007 195 241 9/12/2008 00:00 5 15.0 9/11/2008 19:30 10 21 09/11/2008 14:50 5
42002 028 152 9/12/2008 18:00 5 22.3 09/12/2008 15:50 10 28 09/12/2008 16:27 5
42019 062 63 9/13/2008 00:00 5 22 9/13/2008 01:50 8 29 9/13/2008 01.27 5
42071 036 71 9/13/2008 01:00 4 21.2 9/13/2008 01:30 2 N/A N/A N/A
42070 041 82 9/13/2008 01:00 4 20.2 9/13/2008 00:50 2 N/A N/A N/A
PTAT2 071 148 9/13/2008 03:00 14.9 12.9 9/13/2008 23:40 10 14.9 9/13/2008 22:56 5
42035 259 16 9/13/2008 07:00 5 28 9/13/2008 08:50 8 38 9/13/2008 07:55 5
SRST2 253 44 9/13/2008 08:00 12.5 34 9/13/2008 05:20 10 44.3 9/13/2008 05:09 5

Table 2: Pressure and Wave Events at Selected NDBC Stations
Station Closest Point of Approach Barometer Elevation (m) Lowest Sea-Level Pressure (hPa) Highest Significant Wave Height (m)
Bearing (degrees True) Distance (nm) Date-Time (UTC) Report Date-Time (UTC) Averaging Period (minutes) Report Date-Time (UTC) Wave System
41041 012 270 9/02/2008 15:00 0 1009.9 9/02/2008 19:50 8 2.4 9/04/2008 13:50 WPM
41043 341 102 9/06/2008 02:00 0 1009.9 9/06/2008 06:50 8 3.0 9/06/2008 09:50 WPM
41046 188 164 9/07/2008 06:00 0 1011.8 9/07/2008 08:50 8 6.5 9/07/2008 07:50 WPM
42056 028 194 9/09/2008 18:00 0 1004.0 9/09/2008 22:00 1 2.9 9/10/2008 14:50 WPM
PLSF1 216 117 9/10/2008 00:00 15.8 1001.1 9/09/2008 22:00 2 N/A N/A
42001 020 15 9/11/2008 22:00 0 959.7 9/11/2008 20:50 8 9.2 9/11/2008 18:50 WPM
42040 204 200 9/11/2008 23:00 0 1006.0 9/11/2008 20:50 8 8.6 9/11/2008 14:50 DWA
42007 195 241 9/12/2008 00:00 0 1008.3 9/11/2008 20:50 8 5.0 9/11/2008 22:50 DWA
42002 028 152 9/12/2008 18:00 0 992.5 9/12/2008 12:50 8 6.0 9/12/2008 09:50 WPM
42019 062 63 9/13/2008 00:00 0 984.9 9/13/2008 01:50 8 6.3 9/13/2008 01:50 DWA
42071 036 71 9/13/2008 01:00 0 987.2 9/13/2008 00:00 2 N/A
42070 041 82 9/13/2008 01:00 0 989.5 9/13/2008 00:00 2 N/A
PTAT2 071 148 9/13/2008 03:00 6.4 997.5 9/13/2008 02:00 2 N/A
420352 259 16 9/13/2008 07:00 0 953.4 9/13/2008 06:50 8 7.1 9/13/2008 09:50 DWA
SRST2 253 44 9/13/2008 08:00 5.4 977.5 9/13/2008 06:00 2 N/A



Wave Systems:

WPM (Wave Processing Module): Samples waves at 1.7066 Hz for 40 minutes.

DWA (Directional Wave Analyzer): Samples waves at 2.0 Hz for 20 minutes.



Table 3: As Hurricane Ike made its extratropical transition (Figure 3), NDBC stations in the eastern Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence Seaway reported Gale (34 to 47 kts (17.49 to 24.18 m/s) and even Storm Force (48 kts or greater (24.69 m/s) Winds.

Station Anemometer Height (m) Highest Sustained Wind Speed (m/s) Highest Gusts (m/s)
Report Date-Time (UTC) Averaging Period (minutes) Report Date-Time (UTC) Averaging Period (seconds)
SBIO1 21 25.7 9/14/2008 23:50 10 31.4 9/14/2008 23:42 5
LSCM4 14.4 20.1 9/14/2008 23:00 2 24.7 9/14/2008 22:54 5
45005 5 19.6 9/15/2008 00:20 10 24 9/15/2008 00:11 5
DBLN6 20.4 21.6 9/15/2008 02:50 2 27.8 9/15/2008 02:44 5
45012 5 22.7 9/15/2008 06:20 10 27 9/15/2008 06:08 5
SUPN6 11.6 19.6 9/15/2008 07:00 2 23.2 9/15/2008 07:00 5

Figure 4: Path of 42035 as it drifted.

Figure 4: Path of 42035 as it drifted.


Data Plots for Selected Stations


Figure 5: Wind and Pressure for Station PLSF1

Figure 5: Wind and Pressure for Station PLSF1



Figure 6: Wind and Pressure for 42001 (42A01 is the backup system on 42001)

Figure 6: Wind and Pressure for 42001 (42A01 is the backup system on 42001)



Figure 7: Wave Height at 42001

Figure 7: Wave Height at 42001



Figure 8: Wind and Pressure at 42040

Figure 8: Wind and Pressure at 42040



Figure 9: Wave Height at 42040

Figure 9: Wave Height at 42040



Figure 10: Wind and Pressure at 42019

Figure 10: Wind and Pressure at 42019



Figure 11: Data Plots for Temporary Station 42070.

Figure 11: Data Plots for Temporary Station 42070. The negative values for the height of the wind and pressure measurements stem from the fact that most TAO measurements are oceanographic and thus in terms of depth (positive downwards). The pressure is uncorrected for 3-meter elevation (minus 3-meter depth).



Figure 12: Data Plots for Temporary Station 42071.

Figure 12: Data Plots for Temporary Station 42071. The negative values for the height of the wind, pressure, and rainfall measurements stem from the fact that most TAO measurements are oceanographic and thus in terms of depth (positive downwards). The pressure is uncorrected for 3-meter elevation (minus 3-meter depth).



Figure 13: Wind and Pressure at 42020

Figure 13: Wind and Pressure at 42020



Figure 14: Wind and Pressure at 42035

Figure 14: Wind and Pressure at 42035



Figure 15: Wave Height for 42035

Figure 15: Wave Height for 42035



Figure 16: Wind and Pressure at SRST2

Figure 16: Wind and Pressure at SRST2



Figure 17: Wind and Pressure at Lake Ontario station SBIO1

Figure 17: Wind and Pressure at Lake Ontario station SBIO1





For more information:


NOAA's National Data Buoy Center: http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/


NDBC's Wave Measurements: http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/wavemeas.pdf


For links to local National Weather Service Post-Storm Reports, see http://www.srh.noaa.gov/lch/ike/ikemain.php


For tidal information and meteorological measurements at tide stations, see the Quicklooks of the National Ocean Service's Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services: http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/quicklook_archive.shtml?year=2008&storm=IKE
National Hurricane Center's Hurricane Ike Advisory Archive: http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2008/IKE.shtml?


National Weather Service's Hydrometeorological Prediction Center's Advisory Archive: http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/IKE/IKE_archive.shtml




Appendix A: Description of Measurements (also see: http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/measdes.shtml)


In the report, Buoys have 5-digit station identifiers (e.g., 42001) while C-MAN stations have an alphanumeric station identifier (e.g., PLSF1).


Wind Speed: For stations in this report, wind speed is sampled at a rate of 1.0 Hz. For the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) station wind speeds are reported to NDBC in knots to a resolution of 0.1 knots. C-MAN wind speeds have been converted to meters per second (m/s) for this report, where 1 m/s = 1.94 knots. For the buoy stations wind speeds are reported to NDBC in meters per second to a resolution of 0.1 m/s. For the plot legends:


CWS: The average wind speed over a 10-minute period at the anemometer height. In this report, data are plotted at the time of the end of the valid 10-minute period.


MXGT1: The Peak 5-second gust during the past hour at the anemometer height. The time of MXGT1 is reported to the nearest minute, however, in this report data are plotted at the valid time of the hourly report.


WSPD1: The average wind speed for a period of 2 minutes for C-MAN stations and 8 minutes for buoy stations.


GUST1: The highest five-second average wind speed during the 2 or 8 minute sampling period.


Pressure: For stations in this report, pressure is sampled at a rate of 1.0 Hz and reported to a resolution of 0.1 hectoPascal (hPa). For the plot legends:

BARO1: Sea-level Pressure. Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) stations average the pressure over 2 minutes. The buoy stations average the pressure over 8-minutes.


In addition 41041, 41043, 41046, 42056, and 42057 are equipped with Hurricane Supplemental Measurements:


Winds:

MX1MGT1: Maximum 1-minute wind speed during the previous hour.


Pressure:

MN1MSLP1: Lowest 1-minute sea-level pressure during the past hour when the sea-level pressure is less than 1008 hPa.


Wave: Sampling rate and durations for the wave systems are given in the footnote above for Table 2.

WVHGT: The significant wave height that represents the average of the highest one-third of the waves during the wave sampling period and is computed from the zeroth spectral moment (m0) as 4 * v m0 .

DOMPD: The Dominant Period that represents the wave period (time from between consecutive passes of the wave crests) of the waves with the most energy.


Closest Point of Approach (CPA): Time, bearing (degrees True), and distance (Nautical Miles) from the station to Hurricane Ike at CPA are computed using the positions from the National Hurricane Center's advisories that have been interpolated to hourly values for positions, wind speed (intensity), and central pressure.